Chapter 8: The Disposable Male
Page 190: boys are more at risk, dying off at a rate nearly 30% greater: World Health Organization Statistics, Infant
Mortality, USA http://www3.who.int/whosis/mort/table2_process.cfm.
190: boys manage to poison themselves: M. Lai, et. al. (2005) Annual Report of the American Association of
Poison Control Centers' National Poisoning and Exposure Database http://www.aapcc.org/Annual%20Reports/05report/2005%20Publsihed.pdf.
190: suffer from all kinds of developmental disturbances: The Wonder of Boys by Michael Gurian, Tarcher,
190: diagnosed as emotionally disturbed at four times: What Little Boys Are Made Of; Send them to special
ed . . . especially if they're black. By Philip Dawdy, 08/21/02. Seattle Weekly, August 21, 2002 http://www.seattleweekly.com/2002-08-21/news/what-little-boys-are-made-of.php.
190: Boys get hurt, killed, and commit suicide much more often: Helping America's Youth: Facts and
Information, Increased Risk Factors for Boys http://www.helpingamericasyouth.gov/facts.cfm.
190: at kindergarten, girls are well ahead developmentally . . . and that boys enter a particularly difficult
transition: Boys Will Be Boys, by Barbara Kantrowitz and Claudia Kalb, Newsweek, 05/11/98.
190: boys pull away from their mothers much sooner: The Two Sexes: Growing Up Apart, Coming Together (The Family and Public Policy) by Eleanor E. Maccoby, Belknap Press (1999).
190: girls do not feel the need to disengage: C. Geuzaine, M. Debry, and V. Liesens (2000) Separation from
Parents in Late Adolescence: The Same for Boys and Girls? Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol. 29, No. 1.
191: female teachers . . . make up 70 to 85% of staff: National Center for Education Statistics, Selected
characteristics of public school teachers: Selected years, spring 1961 through spring 2001 http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d05/tables/dt05_068.asp.
191: single sex schools generally improve girls' academic performance . . . reinforce their sense of selfworth
. . . enhance their future ability to relate to males: The National Coalition of Girls' Schools: Alumnae
Survey (Conducted by Goodman Research Group Inc.) http://www.grginc.com/NCGSexecsumm.pdf.
191: just a handful of same-sex schools among the 93,000 coed public schools: Federal Rules Back Single-
Sex Public Education, by Diana Jean Schemo, 10/25/06.
191-92: 95% of primary and secondary schools have the young sexes sharing the same classroom: National
Center for Education Statistics, Private School Universe Survey: 1999–2000, S. Broughman & L. Colaciello,
Statistical Analysis Report August 2001 http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001330.pdf.
192: Boys favor visual processing . . . do not have the hand-motor control: Boys and Girls Learn Differently!
A Guide for Teachers and Parents by Michael Gurian, Jossey-Bass, 2002.
192: Girls read faster . . . control their emotions better: Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys by
Dan Kindlon and Michael Thompson, Ballantine (2000).
192: Department of Education guides actually encourage unisex doll play: Gender Equity for Educators,
Parents and Community, U.S. Department of Education.
193: ADHD . . . diagnosed in boys 3 to 10 times the rate . . . one in five Caucasian school boys spends time
on Ritalin: G B LeFever, K V Dawson, and A L Morrow (1999) The extent of drug therapy for attention deficithyperactivity
disorder among children in public schools. American Journal of Public Health. 89(9): 1359–1364.
193: Boys compose two-thirds of the “learning disabled:” 25th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation
of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Vol. 1 (2003) Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative
Services, U.S. Department of Education http://www.ed.gov/about/reports/annual/osep/2003/25th-vol-1.pdf.
193: and 80% of drop-outs: Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, Civic Report: No. 48, April 2006. Leaving
Boys Behind: Public High School Graduation Rates, by Jay P. Greene and Marcus A. Winters http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_48.htm.
193: Boys grow up to consume more alcohol and drugs . . . engage in much more risky and violent
behavior . . . are on the receiving end of aggression two to three times as often . . . account for four out
of five juvenile court crimes . . . commit suicide at five times the female rate: Helping America's Youth:
Facts and Information, Increased Risk Factors for Boys http://www.helpingamericasyouth.gov/facts.cfm.
193: boys and girls report that teachers favor girls in class; teachers discipline boys much more
often . . . compliment them a fraction of the time: The MetLife Survey: The American Teacher, An
Examination of School Leadership A Survey of Teachers, Principals, Parents and Students http://www.metlife.com/WPSAssets/20781259951075837470V1F2003%20Survey.pdf.
193-94: boys are now testing, on average, well below girls: National Center for Education Statistics http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d05/tables/dt05_108.asp.
194: Boys drop out of school at two to four times the female rate: Manhattan Institute for Policy Research,
Civic Report: No. 48 April 2006. Leaving Boys Behind: Public High School Graduation Rates, by Jay P. Greene
and Marcus A. Winters http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_48.htm.
194: are held back a grade much more often then girls: The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism Is
Harming Our Young Men by Christina Hoff Sommers, Simon & Schuster (2001).
194: Male high school seniors . . . barely ahead of eighth grade girls: National Center for Education Statistics
194: Boys outnumber females in remedial classes: Education Sector; The Truth About Boys and Girls, by
Sara Mead, June 2006 http://www.educationsector.org/usr_doc/ESO_BoysAndGirls.pdf.
194: girls are a significant majority in almost all advanced placement courses: Report shows academic gap
between girls, boys, by Alaina Sue Potrikus, Knight Ridder Newspapers, 09/19/03.
194: boys still make up the top performers in several math and science subjects, they are also thick as
thieves at the bottom . . . girls substantially outnumber boys in honor societies . . . in student government
. . . debating societies . . . among school journalists: The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism Is
Harming Our Young Men by Christina Hoff Sommers, Simon & Schuster (2001).
195: study of 20 textbooks by the Council on Families: Norval D. Glenn (1997) A Critique of Twenty Family
and Marriage and the Family Textbooks, Family Relations, Vol. 46, No. 3: 197-208.
195-96: sex education is being ignored entirely: The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, February 2001,
Volume 4, Number 1, Sex Education: Politicians, Parents, Teachers and Teens.
196: A mid-1980's report by the U.S. Department of Education, “A Nation at Risk:” http://www.ed.gov/pubs/NatAtRisk/index.html.
196-97: more than half of its entering first-year students require remedial assistance . . . barely a third
of students will have been required to take a single high school course in the natural sciences: Legislative
Analyst's Office, February 8, 2001, Improving Academic Preparation For Higher Education http://www.lao.ca.gov/2001/remediation/020801_remediation.html.
197: only a quarter of high school seniors were considered sufficiently versed in civics: NAEP 1998, National
Center for Education Statistics: Civics http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/pdf/main1998/2000460.pdf.
197: America's high school seniors ranked near the bottom in math and science: National Center for
Education Statistics Math http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d05/tables/dt05_398.asp. Science: http://nces.
197: fewer than one in four of the 1.2 million students . . . met college-readiness benchmarks . . . barely
a quarter of incoming freshman are deemed prepared: Many Going to College Are Not Ready; report by
Tamar Lewin, Published: 08/17/05.
197: study has the U.S. in the middle of 37 industrialized nations: U.S. Department of Education: NCES
2006, U.S. Student and Adult Performance on International Assessments of Educational Achievement http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006073.pdf.
197: Women now make up 57% of first year college entrants: National Center for Education Statistics
197: Women comprise well over half the student body in every higher educational category: National
Center for Education Statistics http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d05/tables/dt05_168.asp.
197: Except for science and engineering, women are a visible majority: Where The Boys Aren't, by Brendan
Koerner, U.S. News and World Report, 02/08/99.
197: For every one hundred diplomas conferred on men: National Center for Education Statistics http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d05/tables/dt05_252.asp.
197: The divide is even higher for some minorities: National Center for Education Statistics http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d05/tables/dt05_261.asp.
197: more black men in prison than in college: Justice Policy Institute: Cellblocks or Classrooms? The Funding
of Higher Education and Corrections and Its Impact on African American Men http://www.justicepolicy.org/reports/coc.pdf.
197: by around 2010, college women are expected to exceed men: Where the Boys Aren't, by Brendan
Koerner, U.S. News and World Report, 02/08/99.
202: youthful male participation in organized sports: Laura Langbein, & Roseana Bess (2002) Sports in
School: Source of Amity or Antipathy? Social Science Quarterly. Vol. 83 (2): 436–454.
202: A disproportionately large percentage of imprisoned men did not participate in athletics: Why Men
Don't Listen and Women Can't Read Maps by Allan and Barbara Pease, Broadway (2001).
202: while men go for competition and stats, women seek to know more about the athletes' lives: Insight
Magazine, August 3, 1998 (Out of print.) Quote attributed to Ellen Zavian, Sports attorney and columnist.
204: female-only colleges regularly report that just 10 to 15% of their students play sports: Independent
Women's Forum, Title IX Athletics, June 2000: p32.
205: more than 200 male NCAA teams were cut: Title IX from Outer Space: How Federal Law Is Killing
Men's College Sports, by Walter Olson, Reason, February 1998. http://www.walterolson.com/2006/10/title_ix_from_outer_space.html.
206: women suffer knee injuries and stress fractures: Women's Health in Sports and Exercise, by William
E. Garrett, et. al. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (2001).
207: attendance averages less than eight thousand: http://www.kenn.com/sports/basketball/wnba/index.html.
207: payroll for 200 women in the WNBA: Alive, If Not Kicking, by Michelle Smith, The San Francisco
216: women accounted for 5% of the 2 million Americans: The Disciplines of War, Persons at Arms, The
217: Military personnel statistics: Who They Are, Time, 12/29/03.
217: military women are injured twice as often . . . are out of commission five times as long: Exercise-Related
Injuries Among Women: Strategies for Prevention from Civilian and Military Studies, CDC's: Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Report (March 31, 2000), Julie Gilchrist, M.D., Bruce H. Jones, M.D., M.P.H., David A.
Sleet, Ph.D., C. Dexter Kimsey, Ph.D., M.S.E.H.
218: a third of female colonels in the army suffer chronic orthopedic problems: Jones BH, Knapik JJ.
(1999) Physical Training and Exercise-related Injuries: Surveillance, Research, and Injury Prevention in Military
Populations. Sports Medicine; 27: 111-25.
218: eating disorders among military women: Lauder, T. et. al. (1999) Abnormal eating behaviors in military
women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Vol. 31 (9): 1265-71.
220: between half and three-quarters of military women report some form of sexual harassment: Abuse
in Army 'Not That Unusual': Sexual Misconduct by Trainers Long-Standing Problem for Military, by Dana
Priest, Washington Post, 11/21/96.
220: more than 20% do every year: Department of Defense reports of Sexual Harassment complaints http://www.dod.gov/execsec/adr2000/tablef1_f2.html.
220: In Afghanistan and Iraq many female soldiers have been attacked: The Private War of Women Soldiers,
by Helen Benedict http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2007/03/07/women_in_military/.
220: two-thirds of junior male noncommissioned officers and more than half of their female counterparts
did not believe: The Center for Strategic and International Studies, American Military Culture in the
21st Century, January 2000.
221: at times, more than a fifth of the women on ship duty: At War over Women, by John Barry and Evan
Thomas, Newsweek, May12, 1997. Reducing Unplanned Pregnancy Rates, Evaluation of the CHOICES Program,
Naval Hospital, Sigonella, Italy (2001) http://www-nehc.med.navy.mil/downloads/hp/choices%20analysis.doc.
228: more than four out of five American jobs are service oriented: Securing America's Future: The Case
for a Strong Manufacturing Base, by Joel Popkin, National Association of Manufacturers, June 2003.
228-29: American business trimmed 3 million middle-management positions: Silent Depression: The Fate
of the American Dream by Wallace C. Peterson, W. W. Norton & Company (1995).
229: Among men who do not have a college degree—nearly 75% of working males: The Future of Success by Robert Reich, Vintage Books (2002).
229: disposable income has actually trailed off: Silent Depression: The Fate of the American Dream by Wallace
C. Peterson, W. W. Norton & Company (1995).
229: A third of young employed men take home less pay: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, 1999.
229: Young men overwhelmingly favor technical jobs and large majorities of women apply for service
and healthcare employment: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Women in the Labor Force: A Databook (2006)
230: Half of entering medical students are now women: American Association of Medical Colleges http://www.aamc.org/newsroom/pressrel/2006/apps_entrants2006.pdf.
230: visits with female doctors also last longer: What Doctors of Both Sexes Think of Patients of Both Sexes,
by Abigail Zuger, The New York Times, 06/21/98.
231: Women overwhelmingly report that they want a relationship . . . men mostly treat visits like a
car repair job: Women Looking for Caring Doctors, Men Want Treatment, by Reuters. The New York Times,
232: 90% of workers in the nation's ten most dangerous professions are men . . . each year, nearly 2.5
million American workers are seriously afflicted . . . with a job-related disease . . . 60,000 of them are
permanently disabled . . . and more than 5000 die at work (CDC) . . . at 55% of the workforce, men account
for 93% of job mortalities: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Worker Health
Chartbook, 2004 http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/chartbook/.
232: Nearly a third of our romances develop at work . . . between five and ten million romantic liaisons
grow out of on-the-job contacts . . . a third are believed to develop into longer-term relationships: The
Office Romance: Playing With Fire Without Getting Burned by Dennis M. Powers, Amacon, 1998.
234: sexual harassment case in San Francisco: Georgia Trial Lawyers Association http://www.gtla.org/public/cases/baker.html.
234: nearly 80% of working women acknowledge the likelihood of false charges: Groping Toward Sanity:
Why the Clinton Sex Scandals Are Changing the Way We Talk About Sexual Harassment, by Cathy Young,
Reason; August/September 1998.
235: More than one in ten women has consensual sex . . . almost two-thirds said that the affair advanced
their career: Survey: Women Believe Putting Out Equals Moving Up, by Elizabeth Cohen, New York Post,
238: more than $20 billion is spent annually on “adult” videos . . . more than $10 billion on escort services: Internet Filter Review—Top Ten Reviews, Internet Pornography Statistics. Retrieved 06/08/05.
238: Adult Video News reports 11,000 new porn titles in 2000: Naked Capitalists, by Frank Rich, The New
York Times Magazine, 05/20/01.
238: people who rent porn videos: Adult Video News; taken from Insight Magazine, 01/08/01.
238: a quarter of the Web-connected population checks out porn sites at home . . . one in six do at the
office: Top Ten Reviews—Internet Filter Review, Internet Pornography Statistics; retrieved 06/08/05.
240: Men account for 95% of all sexual psychiatric disorders: Making Sense of Sex: How Genes And Gender
Influence Our Relationships by David P. Barash and Judith Eve Lipton, Island Press (1997).