Chapter 6: The Cult of the Individual
Page 119: Fifteen million people in the US will contract a disease from a sexual partner this year, a quarter of
them teenagers. . . 65 million Americans now carry an STD: Center for Disease Control and Prevention website:
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2005: http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats/05pdf/2005-tables.pdf.
119: and the one in four who will pick one up at least once in their life can usually go in for a shot: Testing
Positive: Sexually transmitted disease and the public health response. Donovan, P. The Alan Guttmacher
Institute, Washington DC, 1993.
120: a hundred years ago, more than half the population was engaged in some form of agriculture,
compared to less than 2% today: J. Diamond. 1997. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New
120: In 1900, just 14 percent of the world's people lived in cities. Today, it's more than half: Experts Scale
Back Estimates of World Population Growth. By Barbara Crossette, New York Times, 08/20/02.
120: more than 360 metropolises around the world supporting at least one million: B. Cohen. 2004. Urban
Growth in Developing Countries: A Review of Current Trends and a Caution Regarding Existing Forecasts.
World Development. Vol. 32 (1): 23-51.
120: Tokyo is home to a staggering 34 million: United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs:
Population Division report on Urban and Rural Areas 2005. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WUP2005/2005WUP_urban_ruralchart.pdf.
122: chimpanzees . . . are only too ready to concoct an excuse to avoid sharing: F. de Waal. 2005. Our Inner
Ape: Power, Sex, Violence, Kindness, and the Evolution of Human Nature. New York: Penguin Group.
129: eleven thousand recognized religions—nearly a dozen considered major: David B. Barrett, et. al.,
“World Christian Encyclopedia: A Comparative Survey of Churches and Religions in the Modern World,”
Oxford University Press (2001).
130: Animals are not inclined to be celibate: M. Walters. 1988. The Dance of Life: Courtship in the Animal
Kingdom. New York. Arbor House.
131: gradual waning of religious faith: “American Religious Identification Survey,” by The Graduate Center
of the City University of New York, at: http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_studies/aris.pdf.
131: Confidence in organized religion had fallen from more than 40% to 20%: Gallup Poll: Confidence
in Institutions http://www.galluppoll.com/content/default.aspx?ci=1597.
131: Roughly one hundred and fifteen million Americans now have no connection to a church
or temple:The Barna Group: “One in Three Adults Is Unchurched” http://www.barna.org/FlexPage.aspx?Page=BarnaUpdate&BarnaUpdateID=185.
131: a clear majority of Catholics, Protestants, and Jews agree: Religion in America 2002, George Gallup,
Princeton Religion Research Center.
131: Nearly two-thirds of young adults also believe religious influence is waning: The Barna Group: “Most
Twentysomethings Put Christianity on the Shelf Following Spiritually Active Teen Years” 0911/06. http://www.barna.org/FlexPage.aspx?Page=BarnaUpdate&BarnaUpdateID=245.
131: Tithing reportedly fell by 17 percent in the last three decades: J. Duin. Tithing Falls by the Wayside.
Insight. 08/26/02. http://www.generousgiving.org/page.asp?sec=4&page=504.
131: attendance by Catholics fell from 50 to barely 25%: Catholic Church Attendance Drops This Year in
Midst of Scandal, by Frank Newport, 12/18/02 http://www.galluppoll.com/content/?ci=7453&pg=1.
131: attendance has fallen by a quarter over the last three decades: Tracking U.S. Religious Preferences
Over the Decades, by Linda Lyons, Education, 05/24/05.
132: adherence is now mostly the habit of the orthodox, the elderly, evangelicals, the less educated and
less prosperous: The Decline of U.S. Religious Faith 1912-1984, B. Beckwith (1985). Religion in America:
Who Has None? Young, More Educated Likely to Claim No Religious Preference, by Albert L. Winseman,
132: Men are far less religious: Religion and Gender: A Congregation Divided, by Albert L. Winseman,
132: Europeans are much more skeptical: “Is God Dead in Europe? (and what that might mean for Americans).”
J. Gannon, USA Today, January 9, 2006. Access at European Values Study site: http://www.europeanvalues.nl/index2.htm.
132: John Paul II declared evolution to be “more than just a theory:” P. Applebome. “Pope Shows How
Faith and Evolution Coexist.” New York Times, 10/25/96.
132: Within weeks of his passing, the church dismissed his declaration on evolution as “vague and unimportant:” “Leading Cardinal Redefines Church's View on Evolution.” C. Dean and L. Goodstein, The New
York Times, 07/09/05.
133: two out of three Americans believe the nation is morally misguided: Gallup Poll: Moral Issues http://www.galluppoll.com/content/default.aspx?ci=1681.
133: we are increasingly suspicious of others: WashingtonPost/Kaiser/Harvard survey, General Social Survey
and American National Election Studies.1996.
133: about eight in ten Americans consider incivility a serious problem: The American Uncivil Wars, by
John Marks. US News and World Report, 04/22/96 http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/960422/archive_009694.htm.
134: boomers' kids are arriving at college, many of them the product of divorce and enveloped by apathy: Young Voters' Disengagement Skews Politics: Graying Electorate's Issues Predominant, Fueling Trend, by
Amy Goldstein and Richard Morin, Washington Post Staff Writers, 10/20/02: A01 http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A53727-2002Oct19¬Found=true.
134: Americans were toiling seventy hours more a year than even the hard-working Japanese: UN. Report:
A Chartbook Of International Labor Comparisons: The Americas, Asia, Europe, June 2006. US Department of
Labor website: http://www.dol.gov/asp/media/reports/chartbook/index.htm.
134: a fifth of Americans report being depressed, lonely, or upset: Kessler R et. al. (2003). The epidemiology
of major depressive disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA,
289 (23): 3095-105.
. . . often resulting from relationship problems and marital strains: Swindle, R. (2000). Responses to
nervous breakdowns in America over a 40-year period: Mental health policy implications. American Psychologist.
Vol. 55(7): 740-749.
134: Antidepressant use is soaring: Antidepressant Use By U.S. Adults Soars Cost and Risk Questions Mount
in Face Of Overall Surge in Prescription Drugs, By Shankar Vedantam, Washington Post (12/3/04). US Department
of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health
Statistics 2004 report: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus04.pdf.
134: one in four Americans met the criteria for having a mental disorder: Ronald C. Kessler, et. al. (2005)
Lifetime Prevalence and Age-of-Onset Distributions of DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey.
Archives of General Psychiatry. Vol. 62: 593-602.
134: More than a third of Americans will experience some form of sexual dysfunction: Sexual Dysfunction
in the United States: Prevalence and Predictors, Edward O. Laumann; Anthony Paik; Raymond C. Rosen.
JAMA. 1999; 281: 537-544.
134: a quarter of the nation's population admits to having approached the edge of mental breakdown:
Swindle, R. (2000). Responses to nervous breakdowns in America over a 40-year period: Mental health policy
implications. American Psychologist. Vol. 55(7): 740-749.
134: Most doctor visits now involve stress-related complaints: The American Institute of Stress website:
“America's #1 Health Problem” http://www.stress.org/americas.htm.
134: big segments of the American public endure acute anxiety, experience panic attacks or suffer from
major phobias: The epidemiology of panic attacks, panic disorder, and agoraphobia in the National Comorbidity
Survey. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Jin R, Ruscio AM, Shear K, Walters EE. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006 Apr;
63 (4): 415-24.
134: More than 26 million Americans live alone: Fields, Jason. 2003. America's Families and Living Arrangements:
2003. Current Population Reports, U.S. Census Bureau http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf.
135: The collapse of American community life. . . membership in community organizations . . . interpersonal
trust are at historic lows . . . between 1980 and 2000, the practice of gathering for family
dinner fell by a third in America: Putnam, Robert. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American
Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.
136: The three-generation household is nearing extinction: Multigenerational Households for the United
States, States, and for Puerto Rico: 2000, U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 http://www.census.gov/population/cen2000/phc-t17.pdf.
136: more people in America over sixty than under twenty: Gray Dawn by Peter Peterson, Crown Publishers,
136: More than one in seven Americans move every year, nearly one in three of those are under twenty:
What Moves Americans to Move?
136: marrying five years later than we did just a few decades ago: Number, Timing, and Duration of
Marriages and Divorces: 2001, Household Economic Studies (Issued February 2005) http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-97.pdf.
137: people who are socially isolated and disconnected from kin are among the least happy: LF Berkman.
(1995). The role of social relations in health promotion, Psychosomatic Medicine. Vol. 57 (3): 245-254.
137: a majority of Americans no longer view having children as the main reason to get married: The
State of Our Unions: The Social Health of Marriage in America, June 2000, The National Marriage Project,
Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey.
138: households of people living alone without children represented the largest segment: America's Families
and Living Arrangements, Population Characteristics 2000, (Issued June, 2001). By Jason Fields http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/p20-537.pdf.
138: number of unwed adults nearly doubled: The State of Our Unions: The Social Health of Marriage in
America, June 2000, The National Marriage Project, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey.
138: almost five million unmarried couples were cohabiting: Pamela J. Smock and Wendy D. Manning.
Living Together Unmarried in the United States: Demographic Perspectives and Implications for Family Policy,
Population Studies Center, March 2004.
138: In Europe, an even higher proportion of domestic couples are unmarried: Unmarried Cohabitation
and Parenthood in Britain and Europe, by Kathleen Kiernan. Law & Policy. January 2004, Vol. 26(1): 33.
138: now more never-married single mothers than divorced single mothers: http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf.
138: From 1960 to 2005, out-of-wedlock births in the U.S. rose from 5 percent to more than one-third:
Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, et al. National Center for Health Statistics. 2006. Births: Final data for 2004.
National Vital Statistics Reports; Vol. 55 no 1. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr55/nvsr55_01.pdf.
138: Rise in divorce rates: Monthly Vital Statistics Report, by Sally C. Clarke, Division of Vital Statistics Vol.
43, No. 9, Supplement, 03/22/95. Final Data From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National
Center for Health Statistics. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/mvsr/supp/mv43_09s.pdf.
139: Women initiate 60 percent of divorce proceedings: Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 39, No, 12,
Supplement 2 05/21/91. Final Data From the National Center for Health Statistics, Advance Report of Final
Divorce Statistics, 1988 http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/mvsr/supp/mv39_12s2.pdf.
139: The most often cited reasons are financial problems and infidelity: The Prenup Audit, by Daniel
Kadlec, Time, 06/28/99. Grant Thorton, Extra-marital affairs remain biggest cause for divorce as major increases
in family strains and emotional/physical abuse also cause more splits—new survey.
139-40: children of divorced parents are much more likely to experience emotional and mental disturbances: D. Dawson (1991), Family Structure and Children's Health and Well-being: Data from the National
Health Interview Survey on Child Health Journal of Marriage and the Family. Vol. 53(3): 573-584.
140: poll of young women reveals a deep-seated desire for a life-long soul mate: Gallup Organization,
06/27/01. Singles Seek Soul Mates for Marriage, National Marriage Project, by Barbara Dafoe Whitehead and
140: Accommodating single parenthood and its effects consume billions: Expenditures on Children by
Families-the Cost of Raising Children, Family Economics and Nutrition Review, Spring, 2002, by Mark Lino
141-42: a significant correlation between an absent father . . . and a child's poor scholastic performance
. . . higher drop-out rates . . . more emotional and psychological disturbances . . . increases in
drug use . . . teen pregnancy . . . violent boy crimes: Blankenhorn, David. 1995. Fatherless America: Confronting
Our Most Urgent Social Problem. New York: HarperPerennial. Popenoe, David. 1996. Life Without Father. New
York: Martin Kessler Books. Pfiffner, L., McBurnett, K., Rathouz, P. (2001) Father Absence and Familial Antisocial
Charecteristics. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Vol. 29 (5) p357 Sun, Y. & Li, Y. (2002). Children's
Well-Being During Parents' Marital Disruption Process: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis. Journal of Marriage
& Family. Vol. 64 (2): 472-482.
142: Fatherless children make up the vast majority of young suicides: Fatherless children are at dramatically
greater risk of suicide. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics,
Survey on Child Health, Washington, D.C., 1993.
142: ninety percent of runaways and homeless youth: Blankenhorn, David. 1995. Fatherless America: Confronting
Our Most Urgent Social Problem. New York. HarperPerennial Popenoe, David. 1996. Life Without Father.
New York: Martin Kessler Books.
142: Daughters living only with their mothers are nearly twice as likely to give birth out of wedlock:
National Longitude Survey of Youth, The Map of the Family, by Kirk A. Johnson, Patrick F. Fagan, William
H.G. Fitzgerald http://www.heritage.org/Research/Family/upload/76145_1.pdf.
142: experience divorce in their own marriages: P. Amato (1996). Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission
of Divorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family. Vol. 58 (3): 628-640.
142: two-thirds of juveniles . . . in state-run institution are from fatherless homes . . . as are most of
the nation's rapists . . . three-quarters of adolescent murderers and long-term prisoners of both sexes:
Bureau of Justice Statistics web site: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/welcome.html. Popenoe, David. 1996. Life
Without Father. New York: Martin Kessler Books.
142: A young child is sixty to one hundred times more likely to be killed by a stepfather . . . sexual abuse
is committed eight times more often: M. Wilson and M. Daly (1988) Homicide: Foundations of Human
Behavior, Aldine Transaction.
142: About half of American children will find themselves in these potentially volatile situations..barely
four in ten children can now expect to have both of their parents around until they leave home: P. Smock
and W. Manning, Living Together Unmarried in the United States: Demographic Perspectives and Implications
for Family Policy, Population Studies Center, March 2004.
143: up to 80 percent of American children are cared for by someone other than their mother: The
National Institute of Child health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development
(SECCYD): Findings for Children up to Age 4 1/2 Years http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/upload/seccyd_051206.pdf.
143: correlation between time spent in daycare and aggressive . . . behavior: National Institute of Child
Health and Human Development, Early Child Care Research Network (2003). Does Amount of Time Spent
in Child Care Predict Socio-emotional Adjustment During the Transition to Kindergarten? Child Development.
74 (4), 976–1005.
143: one out of every five children between the ages of six and twelve is without regular adult supervision: J. Johnson, Who's Minding the Kids? Child Care Arrangements: Winter 2002. Household Economic Studies http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-101.pdf.
143: Teenagers . . . in front of a monitor for about four-and-a-half hours a day: Born to be Wired: Understanding
the First Wired Generation Conference, July 24, 2003. i. Harris Interactive and Teenage Research
Unlimited for Yahoo!
143: today's mother and father, on average, spend about twenty-two fewer hours each week with their
children: L. Casper and S. Bianchi, Continuity and Change in the American Family, Sage Publications, Inc; 1st
edition (December 15, 2001).
143: American children rarely rank higher than the middle ranges: U.S. Department of Education: NCES
2006. U.S. Student and Adult Performance on International Assessments of Educational Achievement http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006073.pdf.
143-44: Barely 70 percent of students entering high school these days manage to graduate: Manhattan
Institute for Policy Research Civic Report: No. 48, April 2006 Leaving Boys Behind: Public High School Graduation
Rates, by Jay P. Greene and Marcus A. Winters http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cr_48.htm.
144: SAT scores are twenty-seven points lower: College Board statistics: http://www.collegeboard.com/prod_downloads/about/news_info/cbsenior/yr2006/table2-mean-SAT-scores.pdf.
144: Children from broken or single parent homes do the worst: Chapman, M. (1977). Father absence,
stepfathers and the cognitive performance of college students. Child Development. 48: 1155-1158.
144: proportion of fifteen-year-old girls who reported having had intercourse: S. Caron, and E Moskey
(2002) Changes over time in teenage sexual relationships: comparing the high school class of 1950, 1975, and
2000. Adolescence. Fall, 2002.
144: a threefold increase in childhood suicide since 1970: UNICEF (1993) The Progress of Nations. United
144: Youngsters and crimes: Juvenile Offenders and Victims:1999 National Report, H. Snyder and M.
Sickmund, National Center for Juvenile Justice, September 1999 http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nationalreport99/toc.html.
144: Ten times more likely than their parents to be the victim of a violent crime . . . accounted for
roughly one in six arrests . . . about half of our adolescents are at risk for early pregnancy, school failure,
or serious drug abuse: Department of Health and Human Services. Youth violence: a report of the Surgeon
General [online]; 2001. www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/youthviolence/toc.htm.
144: Cheating is rampant in school: 2004. Josephson Institute Report Card on the Ethics of American Youth:
Part One: Integrity: Summary of Data http://www.josephsoninstitute.org/Survey2004/2004reportcard_pressrelease.htm.
144: anxiety levels among children aged nine to seventeen are way up: J. Twenge (2000). The Age of Anxiety?
Birth Cohort Change in Anxiety and Neuroticism, 1952-1993. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Vol. 79(6): 1007-1021.
145: Two-thirds of Americans now tell pollsters that youngsters are generally rude, irresponsible and
wild: A. Duffet, J. Johnson, and S. Farkas. Kids These Days '99: What Americans Really Think about the Next
Generation. Public Agenda, 2002.
146: five out of six people logging on to porn sites are males, a good proportion adolescent boys: Pamela
Paul (2005) Pornified: How Pornography Is Damaging Our Lives, Our Relationships, and Our Families. Times
146: At sports sites, men outnumber women seven to one; at baby and infant sites, it is precisely the
reverse: Pew Internet and American Life Project: How Women and Men Use the Internet. http://www.pewinternet.org/pdfs/PIP_Women_and_Men_online.pdf.
148: Married people live longer, safer, sexier and happier lives . . . are healthier and wealthier: Waite,
Linda and Gallagher, Maggie. 2001. The Case for Marriage: Why Married People are Happier, Healthier, and Better
off Financially. New York: Doubleday.
148: Single males are every society's most unhealthy and dangerous segment: Daly, M. and M. Wilson
(1994). Evolutionary Psychology of Male Violence. In J. Archer (ed.), Male Violence. London, Routledge.
148: Unattached men have fewer resources . . . more depressed . . . have sex half as often: Waite, Linda
and Gallagher, Maggie. 2001. The Case for Marriage: Why Married People are Happier, Healthier, and Better off
Financially. New York. Doubleday.