Introduction    2     3    4    6    7    8    9
Chapter 3: The Trickster Called Love

Page 53: Roughly four out of five European men share a common ancestor: R. Dorit, Response: Estimating the Age of the Common Ancestor of Men from the ZFY Intro. Science. Vol. 272(5266): 1360-1361.

55: we find this symmetry appealing because it suggests a healthy genetic inheritance: B. Jones, A. Little, I. Penton-Vo.ak, B. Tiddeman, D. Burt and D. Perrett. 2001. Facial symmetry and judgements of apparent health: Support for a “good genes” explanation of the attractiveness–symmetry relationship. Evolution and Human Behavior. Vol. 22(6): 417-429. See also: D. Perrett, D. M. Burt, I. Penton-Voak, K. Lee, D. Rowland and R. Edwards. 1999. Symmetry and Human Facial Attractiveness. Evolution and Human Behavior. Vol. 20(5): 295-307.

55: Asymmetry and . . . IQ: R. Thom, et. al. 2005. Cortical volume and developmental instability are independent predictors of general intellectual ability. Intelligence. Vol. 33(1): 27-38.

. . . sports ability: Manning, J. T., and L. J. Pickup. 1998. Symmetry and performance in middle distance runners. Int. J. Sports Med. 19: 205-209.

. . . greater health problems overall: R. Thornhill, and S. Gangestad. 2006. Facial sexual dimorphism, developmental stability, and susceptibility to disease in men and women. Evolution and Human Behavior. Vol. 27(2): 131-144.

. . . more frequent outbursts of jealousy: W. Brown and C. Moore. 2003. Fluctuating asymmetry and romantic jealousy. Evolution and Human Behavior. Vol. 24(2): 113-119.

. . . anger: Fluctuating asymmetry predicts human reactive aggression, Z. Benderlioglu (2004), American Journal of Human Biology. Vol. 16 (4): 458-469.

55: Many species use symmetry in selecting their partners: A. Moller and C. Zamora-Muñoz. 1997. Antennal asymmetry and sexual selection in a cerambycid beetle. Animal Behaviour. Vol. 54(6): 1509-1515. See also: A. Moller. 1993. Female preference for apparently symmetrical male sexual ornaments in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Vol. 32(6): 371-376.

56: symmetrically framed men gain more sexual partners: R. Thornhill, S.Gangestad, and R. Comer. 1995. Human female orgasm and mate fluctuating asymmetry. Animal Behaviour. Vol. 50(6): 1601-1615. See also: S. Gangestad and R. Thornhill. 1997. Human sexual selection and developmental stability. Evolutionary social psychology. (pp. 169-196). J. Simpson and D. Kenrick, (Eds). Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.: 424.

56: different scents imply beneficially diverse genes: R. Thornhill, S. Gangestad, R. Miller, G. Scheyd, J. McCollough and M. Franklin. 2003. Major histocompatibility complex genes, symmetry, and body scent attractiveness in men and women. Behavioral Ecology. Vol. 14 (5): 668-678. See also: R. Thornhill and S. Gangestad. 1999. The scent of symmetry: A human sex pheromone that signals fitness? Evolution and Human Behavior. Vol. 20(3): 175-201.

56: people long for a pleasing personality, dependability, intelligence: D. Buss. 1989. Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. Vol. 12(1): 1-49.

57: Waist-to-hip ratio: D. Singh. 1993. Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: role of the waist-to-hip ratio. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 65: 293-307.

57: 85 percent of observers place lovers within two points of each other: How to Make Anyone Fall in Love with You, Leil Lowndes (McGraw-Hill-New York 1997).

57: bachelors are an inch shorter than married men: B. Pawlowski, R. Dunbar and A. Lipowicz. 2000. Evolutionary fitness: Tall men have more reproductive success. Nature Vol. 403(6766): 156.

57: Taller men make more money and command higher status: A. Case and C. Paxson. 2006. Stature and Status: Height, Ability and Labor Market Outcomes. National Bureau of Economic Research:

57: Taller men rarely lose the popular vote in American presidential elections: Etcoff, Nancy. 1999. Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of Beauty. New York: Anchor.

58: a woman's idea of a good-looking man can even shift: I. Penton-Voak, D. et. al. 1999. Menstrual cycle alters face preference. Nature. Vol. 399 (6738): 741-742. See also: S. Gangestad, J. Simpson, A. Cousins, C. Garver-Apgar, and P. Christensen. 2004. Women's Preferences for Male Behavioral Displays Change Across the Menstrual Cycle. Psychological Science. Vol. 15(3): 203-206.

60: uncertainty makes men keenly sensitive to any inkling of their partner's sexual involvement: D. Buss. 1996. Paternity uncertainty and the complex repertoire of human mating strategies. American Psychologist. Vol. 51(2): 161-162.

60: women in a committed relationship seem far more threatened: D. Buss, R. Larsen, D. Westen and J. Semmelroth. 1992. Sex differences in jealousy: Evolution, physiology, and psychology. Psychological Science. 3(4): 251-255.

61-62: Male and female sexual fantasies: B. Ellis and D. Symons. 1990. Sex Differences in Sexual Fantasy: an Evolutionary Psychological Approach, The Journal of Sex Research. Vol. 27(4): 527-555.

62: Only a tiny fraction of women report a complete absence of maternal desire: Dianne Hales. 1999. Just Like a Woman: How Gender Science Is Revealing the Strengths and Skills that Are Truly Female. New York: Bantam Books.

62: romance novels account for forty percent of fiction sales: Romance Writers of America website:

63: Having a baby may permanently and favorably alter brain functioning: Katherine Ellison. 2005. The Mommy Brain: How Motherhood Makes Us Smarter. New York: Basic Books.

63: Suicide is lowest among pregnant women: P. Marzuk, et. al. 1997. Lower risk of suicide during pregnancy. American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 154(1): 122-123.

63: less likely to be admitted to psychiatric facilities: Just Like a Woman: How Gender Science Is Redefining What Makes Us Female by Dianne Hales. Bantam Books, 2000.

63: Contemporary female gatherers in Africa and Australia: M. Potts. 1997. Sex and the Birth Rate: Human Biology, Demographic Change, and Access to Fertility-Regulation Methods. Population and Development Review. Vol. 23 (1): 1-39.

63: 160 menstrual periods over their lifetime, while the average Western woman endures about 400: Is a Monthly Period Still Necessary? By Rachel Sobel, U.S. News and World Report, 06/05/00.

63: Pregnancy reduces nearly every type of reproductive cancer: 96th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research, 04/16-20/05.

63: breast cancer lower in women who nurse: S. Enger 1997. Breastfeeding history, pregnancy experience and risk of breast cancer. British Journal of Cancer. 76: 118-23.

63: breast cancer lowest of all amongst females who get pregnant in their teens: A. Kalache, A. Maguire, and S. Thompson. 1993. Age at last full-term pregnancy and risk of breast cancer. Lancet. Vol. 341: 33-36.

63: correlates with a lower incidence of colon cancer: Koji Tamakoshi (2004). A prospective study on the possible association between having children and colon cancer risk: Findings from the JACC Study, Cancer Science. Vol. 95 (3): 243-247.

63: birthless females are two-and-a-half times more likely to develop brain cancer: Pregnancy protection for brain cancer? Science News. Vol. 142. October 1992.

63: Mothers who breast-feed gain some protection against type 2 diabetes: A. Stuebe, J. Rich-Edwards, W. Willett, J. Manson, and K. Michels. 2005. Duration of Lactation and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of the American Medical Association. 294: 2601-2610.

63: breast-feeding and women's health: Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. 2002. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50,302 women with breast cancer and 96,973 women without the disease. The Lancet. Vol. 360 (9328): 187.

63: By age forty, women are much more likely to carry an impaired fetus: E. Puscheck and A. Pradhan. 2006. First trimester pregnancy loss. eMedicine.

63: older women and Cesarean rate: Older maternal age and cesarean section rates. American Family Physician, August 1991.

63: high blood pressure problems for the baby and mother is heightened among older mothers: M. Gillman, J. Rich-Edwards, S. Rifas-Shiman, E. Lieberman, K. Kleinman, S. Lipshultz. 2004. Maternal age and other predictors of newborn blood pressure. Journal of Pediatrics. 144 (2): 240-5.

63: risk of Down Syndrome: J. Morris et. al. (2005). Risk of a Down syndrome live birth in women 45 years of age and older. Prenatal Diagnosis. April, 25(4): 275-8.

64: Parents take better care of attractive children: Dr. Andrew Harrell, Director, Population Research Laboratory, “Physical Attractiveness of Children and Parental Supervision in Grocery Stores: An Evolutionary Explanation of the Neglect of Ugly Kids” Presented at the Warren E. Kalbach Population Conference 03/11/05.

64: Oxytocin usually initiates labor after dark: Peter W. Nathanielsz (1996). The timing of birth. (fetal brain in the birth process). American Scientist. Vol. 84(6): 562-8.

64: testosterone levels back off when his mate gives birth: P. Gray, et. al. (2002). Marriage and fatherhood are associated with lower testosterone in males. Evolution and Human Behavior. Vol. 23(3): 193-201.

65: Breastfeeding is associated with . . . lower mortality: Breast-fed babies less likely to die study finds. Washington Post. 05/02/04.

. . . fewer infections and easier introduction to solid food: World Health Organization. Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. Geneva, Switzerland: 2003.

. . . decreased likelihood for obesity in the child: K. Dewey. 2003. Is Breastfeeding Protective Against Child Obesity? Journal of Human Lactation. Vol. 19: 9-18.

. . . higher IQ points than formula fed: E. Birch, et. al. (2000). A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. Vol. 42(3): 174-181.

67: Mental and psychological tendencies . . . have a heritable component: The Biotech Century by Jeremy Rifkin, Phoenix Press (1999). See also: The Minnesota Center for Twin and Adoption Research.

. . . religiosity: Nature's clones: research on twins, Psychology Today. July-August, 1997, by Jill Neimark, Tracy Cochran, Larry Dossey.

. . . excitable personality: C. R. Cloninger (1996). Mapping genes for human personality, Nature Genetics. Vol. 12 (1): 3-4.

. . . anxiety: Serotonin Transporter Genetic Variation and the Response of the Human Amygdala, A. Hariri, et. al. (2002). Science. Vol. 297: 400-403.

. . . aggression/abnormal behavior: H. Brunner et. al. (1993) Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A. Science. Vol. 262. no. 5133: 578-580.

. . . obesity: American Heart Association's Scientific Sessions 2000. (A. Gutersohn).

. . . depression. Psychological ailments have also been traced to genetic, chemical, or biological roots: A. Caspi, et. al. (2003) Influence of Life Stress on Depression: Moderation by a Polymorphism in the 5-HTT Gene. Science. Vol. 301 (5631): 386-389.

67: size of certain regions in the brain closely related to intelligence are tightly defined by genetic factors: D. Posthuma, et. al. (2002). The association between brain volume and intelligence is of genetic origin. Nature Neuroscience. Vol. 5: 83-84.

67: gene clusters associated with longevity: The Aging Enigma: Scientists probe the genetic basis of longevity, by Jonathan Shaw. Havard Magazine (Sept.-Oct. 2005).

68: twins are more likely to possess the behavioral patterns of the biological parents: R. Plomin, et. al. (1994). Nature and nurture: Genetic contributions to measures of the family environment. Developmental Psychology, Vol. 30: 32-43.

68: the identical twins of homosexual males are more than fifty percent more likely to be gay: F. Whitam, et. al. (1993). Homosexual orientation in twins: A report on 61 pairs and three triplet sets. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Vol. 22: 187-206.

69: minor anatomical distinctions, especially among lesbians: W. Brown, et. al. (2002). Differences in finger length ratios between self-identified “butch” and “femme” lesbians. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Vol. 31(1): 123-127.

68: neural responses of homosexual males, including their reaction to odors: Y. Martins, et. al.(2005). Preference for human body odors is influenced by gender and sexual orientation. Psychological Science. Vol. 16(9): 694.

70: men taking large doses of testosterone: The He Hormone, by Andrew Sullivan, New York Times Magazine, 04/02/00.

70: Formative young males absorb testosterone rushes two to three times that of a vigorous male adult . . . trial lawyers register higher testosterone levels. . . blue collar workers have more than white collar workers. . . blacks have more than Caucasians . . . violent prisoners, male or female, have more than the soft cases . . . military professionals register higher than new recruits: Ibid.

71: Women and testosterone: Heroes, Rogues and Lovers, by James McBride Dabbs, McGraw-Hill, 2000.

71: Winning sports teams and their fans: P. Bernhardt, et. al. (1998). Testosterone changes during vicarious experiences of winning and losing among fans at sporting events. Physiology & Behavior. Vol. 65(1): 59-62.

71: Married men score lower on testosterone: Peter B. Gray et. al. (2002). Marriage and fatherhood are associated with lower testosterone in males. Evolution and Human Behavior. Vol. 23, (3): 193-201.

72: Lesbians gravitate toward female patterns of long-term relationship: The Stone Age Present by William Allman, Touchstone (1994).

73: males have mutation rates several times that of females: M. Nachman and S. Crowell. 2000. Estimate of the Mutation Rate per Nucleotide in Humans. Genetics, Vol. 156: 297-304.

73: Sex differences in brain development: The Female Brain by Louann Brizendine, Morgan Road Books, 2006.

73: A woman's brain maintains about 90 percent of the alert state: J. Norbert and J. Ksenija. (2005) Sex differences in brain activity related to general and emotional intelligence. Brain and Cognition. Vol. 59(3): 277-286.

73: Women have . . . longer attention spans, are more patient . . . better equipped to read emotions: Baron-Cohen, Simon. 2003. The Essential Difference: The Truth about the Male and Female Brain. New York: Basic Books.

74: where subjects listen to simultaneous conversations: Findings at the Radiological Society of North America's annual meeting, 2000, lead author: Joseph T. Lurito, Indiana School of Medicine. See results at

74: Sex differences in the womb: P. Hepper, et. al. (1997). The Lancet. Vol. 350 (9094): 1820.

74: female “preemies” have a better chance of surviving . . . are more resilient: S. Morse et. al. (2006). Racial and gender differences in the viability of extremely low birth weight infants: a population-based study. Pediatrics. Vol. 117 (1): 201-2.

74: Infant females register fewer incidents of brain damage . . . cerebral palsy and autism: Beyond Reason: Questioning Assumptions Of Everyday Life by Ken Lizotte, Xlibris (2004).

74: Baby girls can distinguish their mothers' voice . . . hold her in longer gazes, showing greater interest in people: The Essential Difference by Simon Baron-Cohen, New York: Basic Books (2003).

74-75: General differences in male/female behavior: Ibid.

75: Females have denser neuron connections: K. Kansaku et. al. (2000). Sex differences in lateralization revealed in the posterior language areas, Cerebral Cortex. Vol. 10(9): 866-872. See also: F. Aboitiz, et. al. (1992). Individual differences in brain asymmetries and fiber composition in the human corpus callosum. Brain Research. Vol. 598(1-2): 154-161.

75: Girls send twice as many emails: Pew Internet and American Life Project, Teens and Technology,

75: boys suffer three to four times the developmental disorders, take more chances, get injured, and die more often: World Health Organization Statistics: Infant Mortality Helping America's Youth: Facts and Information, Increased Risk Factors for Boys The Wonder of Boys by Michael Gurian. Tarcher, 2006.

79: Hunting remained exclusively a male task: Murdock, G. P. 1965. Culture and Society. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.