Chapter 4: Universal Distinctions
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83: Males are everywhere the instigators and the principle victims of aggression: R. Wrangham and D.
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83: Women outlive men—partly for these reasons: A. Barford, D. Dorling, G. Davey Smith and M. Shaw.
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83: A study of forty-four nations: Pew Research Center report. Global Gender Gaps: Women Like Their
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84: people prefer open grass, scattered trees, foliage and water: W. Sullivan. 2005. Forest, Savanna, City:
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84: hospital patients recover faster and require fewer painkillers: R. Ulrich. 1984. View through a window
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84: Optimum group size (100-150): R. Dunbar and M. Spoors. 1995. Social networks, support cliques, and
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85: Most other racial variations can be traced to geographical adaptations: N. Rosenberg, J. Pritchard, et.
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85: Gossip promotes survival. . . role in sexual selection: R. Dunbar. 1996. Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution
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87: a golden age of women emerged: S. Dening. 1996. The Mythology of Sex: An Illustrated Exploration of Sexual
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89: Male tournaments and initiation rites: G. Sheehy. 1999. Understanding Men's Passages. New York:
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90: less than 3 percent of males and females report exclusively gay activity: P. Cameron, and K. Cameron.
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93: Barely half the men in the world and a little over a third of women get to choose their spouse: Broude,
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95: Ninety-seven percent of mammals are polygamous: Walters, Mark. 1988. The Dance of Life: Courtship in
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95: more than eighty percent of the planet's cultures practiced some form of it: Broude, Gwen, ed. Marriage,
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96: about half of all married men are open to an extra-marital affair: Baker, R. R. & Bellis, M. A. 1995. Human Sperm Competition: Copulation, Masturbation and Infidelity. London: Chapman & Hall.
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