Introduction    2     3    4    6    7    8    9
Chapter 4: Universal Distinctions

Page 82: Men are more sexually aggressive in all societies: R. Goldsmith et. al . 2005. Cultural Aspects of Sexual Aggression. K. Barrett, and W. George (Eds). Race, culture, psychology, and law: 403-418. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.: xvii, 478.

83: Males are everywhere the instigators and the principle victims of aggression: R. Wrangham and D. Peterson. 1996. Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence. New York: Houghton.

83: Women outlive men—partly for these reasons: A. Barford, D. Dorling, G. Davey Smith and M. Shaw. 2006. Life expectancy: women now on top everywhere. British Medical Journal. Vol. 332 (7545): 808.

83: A study of forty-four nations: Pew Research Center report. Global Gender Gaps: Women Like Their Lives Better: 10/29/03.

84: people prefer open grass, scattered trees, foliage and water: W. Sullivan. 2005. Forest, Savanna, City: Evolutionary Landscapes and Human Functioning. P. Barlett. (Ed). Urban place: Reconnecting with the natural world. Urban and industrial environments: 237-252. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. viii, 330.

84: hospital patients recover faster and require fewer painkillers: R. Ulrich. 1984. View through a window influences recovery from surgery, Science. Vol. 224: 420-421.

84: Optimum group size (100-150): R. Dunbar and M. Spoors. 1995. Social networks, support cliques, and kinship, Human Nature. Vol. 6(3): 273-29.

85: Most other racial variations can be traced to geographical adaptations: N. Rosenberg, J. Pritchard, et. al. 2002. Genetic Structure of Human Populations. Science. Vol. 298(5602): 2381-2385. See also: M. Bamshad, and S. Olson “Does Race Exist?” Scientific American, December 2003.

85: Gossip promotes survival. . . role in sexual selection: R. Dunbar. 1996. Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press.

87: a golden age of women emerged: S. Dening. 1996. The Mythology of Sex: An Illustrated Exploration of Sexual Customs and Practices from Ancient Times to the Present. New York: Simon & Schuster.

89: Male tournaments and initiation rites: G. Sheehy. 1999. Understanding Men's Passages. New York: Ballantine.

90: Male prisoners with the greatest sex role anxieties: R. Langevin. 2003. A study of the psychosexual characteristics of sex killers: Can we identify them before it is too late? International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. Special Issue: Sex-Offender Treatment. Vol. 47(4): 366-382.

90: less than 3 percent of males and females report exclusively gay activity: P. Cameron, and K. Cameron. 1998. University of Chicago sex survey overestimated prevalence of homosexual identity. Psychological Report. Vol. 82(3 Pt 1): 861-2.

90-91: homosexuality is largely a biological predisposition: R. Pillard and J. M. Bailey. 1998. Human sexual orientation has a heritable component. Human Biology. Vol. 70(2): 347(19).

91: merely viewing photos of attractive women heightens men's estimates: J. Roney. 2003. Effects of visual exposure to the opposite sex: Cognitive aspects of mate attraction in human males. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Vol. 29(3): 393-404.

93: Barely half the men in the world and a little over a third of women get to choose their spouse: Broude, Gwen, ed. Marriage, Family, and Relationships: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia. 1994 Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.

95: Ninety-seven percent of mammals are polygamous: Walters, Mark. 1988. The Dance of Life: Courtship in the Animal Kingdom. Arbor House, New York.

95: more than eighty percent of the planet's cultures practiced some form of it: Broude, Gwen, ed. Marriage, Family, and Relationships: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia. 1994 Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.

96: about half of all married men are open to an extra-marital affair: Baker, R. R. & Bellis, M. A. 1995. Human Sperm Competition: Copulation, Masturbation and Infidelity. London: Chapman & Hall.

97: women are much more disturbed by signs of an emotional attachment; men report less concern: D. Buss (2000). The Dangerous Passion: Why Jealousy Is as Necessary as Love and Sex. New York: The Free Press.

98: Love fades gradually over the first four years . . . before it stabilizes then drops off: L. Kurdek. 1999. The nature and predictors of the trajectory of change in marital quality for husbands and wives over the first 10 years of marriage. Developmental Psychology. Vol. 35(5): 1283-1296.