Chapter 2: Positioning Sex
Page 25: social isolation is hazardous to health: J. Cacioppo, et.al (2000). Lonely traits and concomitant physiological
processes: The MacArthur social neuroscience studies. International Journal of Psychophysiology. Special
Issue: Proceedings of the 9th World Congress of the International Organization of Psychophysiology (IOP).
Vol. 35: 143-154.
26: Male status hierarchies: F. de Waal. 1982. Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex among Apes. London: Jonathan
27: Adaptive division of labor between the sexes: B. Yorburg. 1974. Sexual Identity: Sex Roles and Social Change.
John Wiley and Sons, New York.
29: A newborn shows preference for its mother's voice: A. DeCasper and W. Fifer. 1980.Of human bonding: newborns prefer their mothers' voices, Science. Vol. 208: 1174-1176.
29: scientists have transformed normal, mothering mammals into parental derelicts: L. Lefebvre et. al.
(1998). Abnormal maternal behaviour and growth retardation associated with loss of the imprinted gene, Mest
Nature Genetics 20: 163-169.
29: barely 1% of male mammals or primates demonstrate even the slightest inclination to assist with
parenting: Clutton-Brock, T.H. 1991. The Evolution of Parental Care. Princeton, NJ: Princeton U. Press.
31: Male beetles' nuptial gift: Vahed, K. (1998). The function of nuptial feeding in insects: review of empirical
studies. Biological Reviews 73: 43-78.
32: An ovulating woman still reflects: S. Gangestad, et. al. (2005). Adaptation to Ovulation. The Handbook
of Evolutionary Psychology (ed. Buss, D.) John Wiley and Sons, Inc. See also: D. Symons. 1979. The Evolution of
Human Sexuality. Oxford University Press.
32: Women report that their partners keep a closer watch: M. Haselton, S. Gangestad. 2006. Conditional
expression of women's desires and men's mate guarding across the ovulatory cycle. Hormones and Behavior. Vol.
32: sniffing ovulatory secretions can boost a males' testosterone: Men Respond to the Scent of a Woman,
by Alison Motluk, New Scientist, September 7, 1996, Science: 1616.
32: women are still more interested in sexual intimacy when they are ovulating: H. Stanislaw and F. Rice.
1988. Correlation between sexual desire and menstrual cycle characteristics. The Archives of Sexual Behavior.
32: They show more skin, put on more make-up, and wear more jewelry when they are most fertile: Pillsworth, E. G., Haselton, M. G., & Buss, D. M. (2004). Ovulatory shifts in female sexual desire. The Journal
of Sex Research, Vol. 41: 55-65.
33: sexual intercourse between humans occurs about one hundred million times a day. Less than a million
result in conception: Ever since Adam and Eve: The Evolution of Human Sexuality by Malcolm Potts, Roger
Short, Cambridge University Press (1999).
34-35: rear-mounting positions seem to favor the rapid and deep penetration that best assures impregnation . . . report it as an arousing position for both sexes: Sex & Health newsletter, June 1998. (Out
35: the hotter the sex, the better the sperm count and ejaculatory potential: Men's Health article; quote
attributed to Larry Lipshultz, M.D.
37: women reveal an interest in their partner's financial capacities more than ten times as often: Baize
and Schroder. 1995. Personality and mate selection in personal ads: evolutionary preferences in a public mate
selection process. The Journal of Social Behavior and Personality.
43: sex dropped off the list of top ten Internet search engine terms: “Bin Laden” is Internet's top search
term, ITN website, 09/20/01.
44: the over forty-five sexes sustain most of the sexual patterns: AARP/Modern Maturity Sexuality Survey,
NFO Research, Inc., August 1999.
44: infanticide in primate species: G. Hausfater. 1984. Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives.
Current Anthropology, Vol. 25(4): 500-502.
44: some pregnant females are known to spontaneously abort: H. Bruce. 1960. A block to pregnancy in mice
caused by the proximity of strange males. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 1: 96-103.
45: a young human child is many times more likely to be murdered by a stepfather: M. Daly and M.
Wilson. 1988. Homicide. A. de Gruyter: New York.
45: an unidentified couple offered $50,000 for an egg: A Fertile Scheme; Newsweek, November 8, 1999. See
also the website: http://www.ronsangels.com.
46: New mothers and their side of the family draw comparisons between the looks of the father and
child: M. Daly and M. Wilson. 1982. Whom are newborns said to resemble? Ethology and Sociobiology. Vol. 3(2):
46: Paternity certainty estimates: M. Bellis, K. Hughes, S. Hughes and J. Ashton. 2005. Measuring paternal discrepancy
and its public health consequences. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. Vol. 59: 749-754.