Chapter 7: Designing Gender
Page 153: the number of women living alone mushroomed: America's Families and Living Arrangements: 2003,
Issued November 2004 http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/p20-553.pdf.
153: Most young American women now have intercourse by their middle teens . . . barely a year later
than young men: Mott, Frank et. al. (1996) The Determinants of First Sex by Age 14 in a High-Risk Adolescent
Population. Family Planning Perspectives. Vol. 28 (13): 13-18. Nigel Dickson et. al. (1998). First sexual intercourse:
age, coercion, and later regrets reported by a birth cohort. British Medical Journal. 316: 29-33.
153: by age 20, less than one in five is a virgin: Abma JC et al., Teenagers in the United States: sexual activity,
contraceptive use, and childbearing, 2002, Vital and Health Statistics, 2004, Series 23, No. 24.
154: women have been approaching most male measures of premarital sex: Trends in Premarital
Sex in the United States, 1954–
2003, Lawrence B. Finer, PhD http://www.publichealthreports.org/userfiles/122_1/12_PHR122-1_73-78.pdf.
155: among people aged fifteen to sixty-four, there are now more than two working women for every
three working men: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): Employment Outlook
2002 - Chapter 2 Women at work: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/36/7/17652667.pdf.
156: Studies show that women . . . keep track of more things simultaneously . . . adapt more easily to
physical prompts and emotional nuances . . . are better equipped to handle the egalitarian teamwork:
The First Sex: The Natural Talents of Women and How They are Changing the World by Helen Fisher, Random
156: Women now account for 60% of public officials: OECD Employment Outlook 2002–Chapter 2 Women
at work: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/36/7/17652667.pdf.
156: Nearly half of our economists are women. . . graduating with degrees in economics: Report of the
Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession, Francine D. Blau (2006), American Economic
Review. Vol. 96 (2): 519-26.
156: women have accounted for the majority of college graduates and master's degree candidates: Women's
Figures: An Illustrated Guide to the Economic Progress of Women in America (Independent Women's Forum, 1999).
156: Women now make up: more than 40 percent of doctoral candidates: National Center for Education
156: a big contingent of business school graduates: Catalyst Quick Takes: Women MBAs http://www.catalystwomen.org/files/quicktakes/Quick%20Takes%20-%20Women%20MBAs.pdf.
156: parity at top-ranked medical and law schools: Business Week, 05/22/00; American Bar Association,
156: Lawrence Summers incident: Summers Comments on Women in Science (transcript), 02/22/05 http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/science/jan-june05/summersremarks_2-22.html.
157: Growth of women-owned businesses since 1960's: Babson College/Mass Mutual Financial Group,
Women in Family-Owned Businesses Report, August 2003.
157: nearly 40 percent of American businesses, with annual sales approaching $4 trillion; employ a quarter
of the work force: Women in Business: A Demographic Review of Women's Business Ownership, Office of
Advocacy U.S. Small Business Administration, August 2006 http://www.sba.gov/advo/research/rs280tot.pdf.
157: Growth of women's wages: OECD: Employment Outlook 2002 - Chapter 2 Women at work: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/36/7/17652667.pdf.
157-58: average working woman puts in less than 85 percent of the hours: U.S. Department of Labor,
Bureau of Labor Statistics http://www.bls.gov/opub/ils/pdf/opbils10.pdf.
158: Women make up more than 75 percent of many low-paying jobs: Women in the Labor Force: A
Databook, May 2005 http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook-2005.pdf.
158: Women's reduced seniority and their on-the-job experience about half of men's levels . . . men put
in more time at work than women: Women's Earnings: Work Patterns Partially Explain Difference between
Men's and Women's Earnings, October 2003 http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d0435.pdf.
158: surveys of women MBA's report that a third are not working full-time: Viewpoints August 2003
(newsletter) Catalyst http://www.catalystwomen.org/files/view/Workplace%20Flexibility%20Is%20Still%20a%20Women's%20Advancement%20Issue.pdf.
158: failure to negotiate for a higher salary may account for the modest gender differences: Gender as a
Situational Phenomenon in Negotiation, by Hannah Riley, Linda Babcock. IACM 15th Annual Conference: KSG
Working Paper No. RWP02-037. http://papers.ssm.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=305159.
158: women and men are paid just about equally under the same circumstances: The Wage Gap Myth, by
Denise Venable, Brief Analysis No. 392; Friday, 04/12/02 http://www.ncpa.org/pub/ba/ba392/ba392.pdf.
158: in more than 30% of married households with a working wife, the husband earns less: Men, Women...
and Money, Money Magazine (online: CNN Money.com), by Pat Regnier and Amanda Gengler, 03/14/06 http://money.cnn.com/2006/03/10/pf/marriage_short_moneymag_0604/index.htm.
158: female physicians earned about 70%: Baker, Lawrence C., (1996). Differences in Earnings Between Male
and Female Physicians. The New England Journal of Medicine, 334(15): 960-964.
159: women are hugely increasing their presence in higher-paying middle management: OECD Employment
Outlook 2002 - Chapter 2 Women at work: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/36/7/17652667.pdf.
159: Among Fortune 500 companies . . . barely a half dozen female CEO's by 2006 . . . just one in six senior
corporate officers: 2005 Catalyst Census of Women Corporate Officers and Top Earners of the Fortune 500.
159: Only 7% of working women pursue careers in quantitative fields: Makeup vs. Math, Psychology Today,
Nov, 2000, by Jacqueline Fisherman.
160: few women regard the stresses and strains: P. Stone and M. Lovejoy (2004). Fast-track women and the
“choice” to stay home. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 596: 62-83 http://ann.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/596/1/62.pdf.
160: having a child will reduce a woman's lifetime earnings . . . women without children bring home about
90% of men's earnings: Crittenden, Ann. 2001.The Price of Motherhood. New York: Metropolitan Books.
160: fewer than one in five women living with her husband and children under six even held a job . . . more
than tripled to over three in five . . . two-thirds of married women with young children work outside
the home: U.S. Census Bureau, Labor Force, Employment and Earnings http://www.census.gov/prod/1/gen/95statab/labor.pdf.
162: busing program nearly doubling minority presence by the end of the century: City-Suburban Desegregation
and Forced Choices: A Review Essay of Susan Eaton's The Other Boston Busing Story, Yale University
Press, New Haven (2001).
164: a female CNN executive argues: Play Like a Man, Win Like a Woman: What Men Know About Success that
Women Need to Learn by Gail Evans, Broadway Books 2001.
165: women who had a preference would choose a male boss: Carroll, Joseph. “Americans Prefer Male Boss
to a Female Boss.” The Gallup Poll. 09/1/06.
165: attempts at sabotage from their female predecessors and competitors: In the Company of Women:
Indirect Aggression Among Women: Why We Hurt Each Other and How to Stop by Pat Heim, Susan Murphy, and
Susan K. Golant, Tarcher: 05/22/03.
171: Mothers gain child custody four out of five times when it is contested: Dividing the Child: Social &
Legal Dilemmas of Custody by Eleanor Maccoby and Robert Mnookin (Harvard University Press).
171: In one notorious case: Dad Blood: If DNA Tests Prove that You're not Your Children's Father, Do You
Still Owe Child Support? By Cathy Young, Reason November 2002.
171: four-fifths of fathers with custody or visitation rights pay child support: Household Economic
Studies, Current Population Reports, Support Providers: 2002 By Timothy Grall http://www.census.gov/prod/2005pubs/p70-99.pdf.
171: fifteen thousand American men are in prison for missing child support: In Defense of Deadbeat Dads,
by Harry Jaffe, Men's Health, June 2003.
171: Women are less likely to be arrested for any type of offense . . . sentences for the same crimes are
often much less: Statistics on Women and the Criminal Justice System (2002) http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/s95women02.pdf.
171: women are charged with 20% of all crimes . . . make up barely 6% of the inmate population: Bureau
of Justice Statistics: Women Offenders, by Lawrence A. Greenfeld and Tracy L. Snell http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/wo.htm.
171-72: A typical study in Florida reported: Florida Corrections Commission, An Evaluation of Florida's
Local Pretrial Detention Population http://www.fcc.state.fl.us/fcc/reports/pretrial/index.html.
172: women make 38% of Social Security contributions and collect 53% of the benefits: The Social
Security Network, Setting the Record Straight, by Bernard Wasow April 2002 http://www.socsec.org/facts/Record_Straight/women.pdf.
174: 80% of American women will use oral contraceptives: CDC, Women's Health Newsletter, Fall 2002.
174: At any given time, about sixteen million American women are taking birth control pills: Piccinino
LJ, Mosher WD (1998). Trends in contraceptive use in the United States: 1982-1995. Family Planning Perspectives.
Vol. 30 (46): 4-10.
174: long-term pill use may lower the risk of heart disease and stroke: New WHI Analysis: Oral Contraceptives
May Reduce CVD Risk, by Andrew Bowser http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/491753?rss.
174: but earlier surveys suggest it may be a net risk factor for certain types of cancers: National Cancer
174: offspring conceived through missed doses may experience increased cancer rates: B. G. Timms, et.
al. (2005) Estrogenic chemicals in plastic and oral contraceptives disrupt development of the fetal mouse prostate
and urethra, PNAS 102: 7014-7019.
174: In tests designed to measure the ability to pick up the scent of genetically incompatible mates: Wedekind, Claus, et al. (1995) “MHC-Dependent Mate Preferences In Humans.” Proceedings of the Royal
Society of London, 260: 245-249.
174-75: Women . . . not on oral contraceptives experience subtle changes: Penton-Voak I., et. al. (1999)
Menstrual cycle alters face preference. Nature. Vol. 399: 741-42.
175: nearly a third of first-time users of oral contraception stopped using it because of reduced interest: Pill May Suppress Women's Sex Drive, by Cheryl Wetzstein, The Washington Times, 01/03/06.
177: a growing majority of married women would prefer to stay at home: The Roper Center for Public
Opinion Research, University of Connecticut. Poll of Women's Attitudes Towards Work (1997).
177: more than two-thirds of women and men think it is “much better for the family if the father works
outside the home and the mother takes care of the children:” Poll Analysis: Child Care in California, by
Susan Pinkus, Times Poll Director, June 20 1999.
177: two-thirds of married and single young women would ditch their jobs and careers in a heart-beat:
Meet the New Housewife Wanna-bes, by Judy Dutton, Cosmopolitan, June 2000.
177: 56% of women graduates were still working, compared to 90% of men . . . almost a third of women
that graduated . . . are working part-time: Many Women at Elite Colleges Set Career Path to Motherhood,
by Louise Story, The New York Times, 9/20/05.
178: less than 10% of teenage girls have any interest in a business career: Teen Girls on Business: Are
They Being Empowered? By Fiona Wilson and Deborah Marlino (study authors) 1997 http://www.simmons.edu/enews/alumnet/harris/network_spr2003.pdf.
178: just a third of college women were defining themselves as feminists: How Women See Themselves:
The Latest Polls by Karlyn Bowman, 05/12/00. Clare Boothe Luce Policy Institute http://cblpi.org/resources/speech.cfm?ID=30.
178: A Time/CNN poll of women near the end of the decade pegged it at barely a quarter: The War Against
Feminism, by Nancy Gibbs, 03/09/92 http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,975019-8,00.html.
178: women with infants under a year old who held a job doubled...began to reverse, pulling back:
Fertility of American Women: Current Population Reports, by Barbara Downs, June 2002 http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/p20-548.pdf.
178: a mother working full-time during an infant's first nine months diminishes its overall intellectual
development: Wen-Jui Han, Jane Waldfogel, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn (2001). The Effects of Early Maternal Employment
on Later Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes, Journal of Marriage and Family. Vol. 63 (2): 336-54.
180: women begin taking a sharp turn toward things mothering by their mid-twenties . . . between a
third and one-half . . . consider having a child on their own: The State of Our Unions: The Social Health of
Marriage in America, June 2000, The National Marriage Project, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey.
181: by 2000, about a quarter of never-married women were choosing to become mothers: Fertility of
American Women: Population Characteristics, by Amara Bachu and Martin O'Connell, June 2000, Current
Population reports http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/p20-543rv.pdf.
181: one in three American mothers do not even attempt it and a lot quit early: Collaborative Group on
Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. 2002. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual
data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50,302 women with breast cancer and 96,973
women without the disease. The Lancet. 360(9328): 187.
183: young women now share almost all male patterns of early and extensive experimentation with sex: Michael, R. T., Gagnon, J. H.,Laumann, E. O., & Kolata, G. Sex in America, Little, Brown (1994), Boston.
184: strong gender convergence, attributing this trend to clear shifts by young women: The American
Freshman: Thirty Year Trends, by Alexander W. Astin, Leticia Oseguera, Linda J. Sax, and William S. Korn.
Higher Research Center, UCLA, 2002.
184: Other reports confirm, even celebrate these patterns: The National Center on Addiction and Substance
Abuse at Columbia University (CASA), CASA Report on Underage Drinking, 02/26/02 http://www.casacolumbia.org/absolutenm/templates/PressReleases.aspx?articleid=271&zoneid=47.
184: most women in developed nations tell pollsters they are generally in a better situation than their
grandmothers: Angus Reid: The Economist Poll.